Efficient tetanus toxoid immunization on vitamin D supplementation

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar;65(3):329-34. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.276. Epub 2011 Jan 12.


Background/objectives: Vitamin D mediates immunomodulatory functions, and its deficiency has been associated with an increased prevalence of immunological diseases. The supplementation of vitamin D might be therapeutically beneficial, for example, in lupus erythematosus patients. However, its affect on established recall immune responses is undefined.

Subjects/methods: In all, 32 individuals were randomized in a placebo controlled, double-blind setting, and received vitamin D (daily 2000 IU) for 10 weeks followed by tetanus toxoid (TT) booster immunization.

Results: During vitamin D supplementation the median 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration increased to 80.3 nM, which as expected decreased in the placebo group to 29.1 nM during the ultraviolet-deprived winter months. The TT-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) boost efficiency was marginal higher in the vitamin D group (P = 0.04). The increase of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels correlated with the increase of TT-IgG serum concentrations. The induction of specific serum IgA and specific antibody secreting cells was comparable between both groups. Accordingly, the TT-specific and polyclonally triggered T-cell cytokine profiles were stable as well.

Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation was successful and booster immunization induced efficiently specific antibodies titers.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ergocalciferols / immunology
  • Ergocalciferols / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Secondary
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / blood
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / immunology
  • Seasons
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Tetanus Toxoid / immunology*
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / immunology*
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / immunology*


  • Ergocalciferols
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Tetanus Toxoid
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D