Current and emerging therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) offer promise for improved disease control and long-term clinical outcome. To date, these therapies have been evaluated solely in the context of adult MS. However, onset of MS in children is being increasingly recognized, and recent studies have identified a significant impact of MS onset during childhood on cognitive and physical functioning. Optimization of pediatric MS care requires that promising new therapies be made available to children and adolescents, but also that safety and tolerability and potential influence of therapies on the developing immune and neural networks of pediatric patients be closely considered. We propose care algorithms illustrating models for therapy that detail careful monitoring of pediatric patients with MS, provide definitions for inadequate treatment response and treatment escalation, and foster multinational collaboration in future therapeutic trials.