Interactions between gut microbiota and host metabolism predisposing to obesity and diabetes

Annu Rev Med. 2011;62:361-80. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-012510-175505.

Abstract

Novel, culture-independent, molecular and metagenomic techniques have provided new insight into the complex interactions between the mammalian host and gut microbial species. It is increasingly evident that gut microbes may shape the host metabolic and immune network activity and ultimately influence the development of obesity and diabetes. We discuss the evidence connecting gut microflora to obesity and to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and we present recent insights into potential mechanisms underlying this relationship: increased nutrient absorption from the diet, prolonged intestinal transit time, altered bile acid entero-hepatic cycle, increased cellular uptake of circulating triglycerides, enhanced de novo lipogenesis, reduced free fatty acid oxidation, altered tissue composition of biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acid, chronic low-grade inflammation triggered by the endotoxin toll-like receptor 4 axis, and altered intestinal barrier function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiopoietin-like 4 Protein
  • Angiopoietins / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Choline / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / microbiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / microbiology*
  • Endotoxemia / metabolism
  • Endotoxemia / microbiology
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / microbiology
  • Linoleic Acids, Conjugated / metabolism
  • Metagenome*
  • Mice
  • Obesity / metabolism*
  • Obesity / microbiology*
  • Rats
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / metabolism

Substances

  • Angiopoietin-like 4 Protein
  • Angiopoietins
  • Angptl4 protein, mouse
  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Linoleic Acids, Conjugated
  • TLR4 protein, human
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Choline