Phenotypes and functions of persistent Sendai virus-induced antibody forming cells and CD8+ T cells in diffuse nasal-associated lymphoid tissue typify lymphocyte responses of the gut

Virology. 2011 Feb 20;410(2):429-436. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.12.017. Epub 2011 Jan 11.


Lymphocytes of the diffuse nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (d-NALT) are uniquely positioned to tackle respiratory pathogens at their point-of-entry, yet are rarely examined after intranasal (i.n.) vaccinations or infections. Here we evaluate an i.n. inoculation with Sendai virus (SeV) for elicitation of virus-specific antibody forming cells (AFCs) and CD8(+) T cells in the d-NALT. Virus-specific AFCs and CD8(+) T cells each appeared by day 7 after SeV inoculation and persisted for 8 months, explaining the long-sustained protection against respiratory virus challenge conferred by this vaccine. AFCs produced IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA, while CD8+ T cells were cytolytic and produced low levels of cytokines. Phenotypic analyses of virus-specific T cells revealed striking similarities with pathogen-specific immune responses in the intestine, highlighting some key features of adaptive immunity at a mucosal site.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / immunology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / virology
  • Immunoglobulin A / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin G / biosynthesis
  • Lymphoid Tissue / immunology*
  • Lymphoid Tissue / virology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Nasal Mucosa / immunology*
  • Nasal Mucosa / virology*
  • Respirovirus Infections / immunology
  • Respirovirus Infections / pathology
  • Respirovirus Infections / virology
  • Sendai virus / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • Time Factors


  • Cytokines
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G