Effect of diaphragmatic respiration with end-tidal CO2 biofeedback on respiration, EEG, and seizure frequency in idiopathic epilepsy

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;602:67-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb22730.x.


Breathing rate (RR), end-tidal percent CO2, and EEG were obtained in three groups: psychiatric referral subjects presenting with anxiety, panic phobia, depression and migraine; a group of idiopathic seizure sufferers; and a group of asymptomatic controls. Virtually all the noncontrol subjects were found to show moderate to severe hyperventilation and the accompanying EEG dysrhythmia. The seizure group subjects were taught diaphragmatic respiration with end-tidal percent CO2 biofeedback. The training normalized their respiration and altered their EEGs and seizure frequency.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Behavior Therapy / methods
  • Biofeedback, Psychology*
  • Carbon Dioxide / analysis*
  • Carbon Dioxide / chemistry
  • Child
  • Diaphragm
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Epilepsy / etiology
  • Epilepsy / physiopathology
  • Epilepsy / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperventilation / complications
  • Male
  • Respiration*
  • Tidal Volume*


  • Carbon Dioxide