Recent evidence suggests that an acute increase in the generation of phagocyte-like NADPH-oxidase (Nox)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be necessary for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Using rat islets and INS 832/13 cells, we tested the hypothesis that activation of specific G proteins is necessary for nutrient-mediated intracellular generation of ROS. Stimulation of β-cells with glucose or a mixture of mitochondrial fuels (mono-methylsuccinate plus α-ketoisocaproic acid) markedly elevated intracellular accumulation of ROS, which was attenuated by selective inhibitors of Nox (e.g., apocynin or diphenyleneiodonium chloride) or short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p47(phox), one of the subunits of Nox. Selective inhibitors of protein prenylation (FTI-277 or GGTI-2147) markedly inhibited nutrient-induced ROS generation, suggesting that activation of one (or more) prenylated small G proteins and/or γ-subunits of trimeric G proteins is involved in this signaling axis. Depletion of endogenous GTP levels with mycophenolic acid significantly reduced glucose-induced activation of Rac1 and ROS generation in these cells. Other immunosuppressants, like cyclosporine A or rapamycin, which do not deplete endogenous GTP levels, failed to affect glucose-induced ROS generation, suggesting that endogenous GTP is necessary for glucose-induced Nox activation and ROS generation. Treatment of INS 832/13 cells or rat islets with pertussis toxin (Ptx), which ADP ribosylates and inhibits inhibitory class of trimeric G proteins (i.e., G(i) or G(o)), significantly attenuated glucose-induced ROS generation in these cells, implicating activation of a Ptx-sensitive G protein in these signaling cascade. Together, our findings suggest a prenylated Ptx-sensitive signaling step couples Rac1 activation in the signaling steps necessary for glucose-mediated generation of ROS in the pancreatic β-cells.