Predation Risk as a Cost of Reproduction

Trends Ecol Evol. 1991 Jun;6(6):183-6. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(91)90210-O.

Abstract

Predation risk as a cost of reproduction in animals has recently received increased empirical and theoretical attention. Higher risk may be associated with all stages of reproduction. Examples of evolutionary responses to this increased risk include habitat choice, duration and timing of display and copulation, changes in brightness of breeding coloration, and changes in life history traits such as age of reproduction and reproductive effort.