A double-blinded, controlled study of vaccination of untreated patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with 3 doses of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) pulsed with heat inactivated autologous HIV-1 was performed. Therapeutic vaccinations were feasible, safe, and well tolerated. At week 24 after first vaccination (primary end point), a modest significant decrease in plasma viral load was observed in vaccine recipients, compared with control subjects (P = .03). In addition, the change in plasma viral load after vaccination tended to be inversely associated with the increase in HIV-specific T cell responses in vaccinated patients but tended to be directly correlated with HIV-specific T cell responses in control subjects.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00402142.