A large previously reported family with hyperparathyroidism has been reinvestigated recently because of the occurrence of multiple ossifying jaw fibromas in two affected members of the third generation similar to the jaw tumors of four of five affected members of the first generation. These maxillary and mandibular tumors can be differentiated from the "brown tumors" of hyperparathyroidism because they can appear and enlarge even though the hypercalcemia is surgically corrected. These tumors are histologically distinct fibroosseous lesions without the giant cells seen in "brown tumors." The parathyroid enlargement was mostly uniglandular, with multiple tumors found occasionally. Studies in DNA linkage were performed within this large family and a similar family in Houston to determine if the gene for this syndrome, termed HRPT2, is linked to DNA markers on chromosome 11, to which the gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 has been linked. (This linkage is supported by our findings in one family with MEN 1 reported here.) Linkage studies were also performed with markers on chromosome 10, to which the genes for MEN 2A and MEN 2B have been linked. Evidence against close linkage with chromosome 10 and chromosome 11 markers suggests that this clinically distinct syndrome is also genetically distinct.