Baseline predictors of ninety percent or higher antiretroviral therapy adherence in a diverse urban sample: the role of patient autonomy and fatalistic religious beliefs

AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011 Feb;25(2):103-11. doi: 10.1089/apc.2010.0319. Epub 2011 Jan 15.


The role of patient autonomy and influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is to date not fully understood. This study assessed baseline predictors of high ART adherence (≥90%) measured by electronic drug monitors (EDM) at 12 and 24 weeks after enrollment in a randomized controlled trial testing behavioral interventions to improve ART adherence. Baseline data were collected with audio computer-assisted self interviews (ACASI) surveys among a diverse urban sample of HIV-infected participants (n = 204) recruited from community clinics in a large midwestern city. Baseline variables included a range of established ART adherence predictors as well as several less frequently studied variables related to patient autonomy and religious/spiritual beliefs. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) variables identified in univariate analyses were included in subsequent multivariate analyses predicting higher than 90% adherence at 12 and 24 weeks. Several baseline predictors retained statistical significance in multivariate analysis at 24 weeks. Baseline levels of autonomous support from friends and family, motivation to adhere, and having an active coping style were all positively associated with adherence, while the belief that God is in control of one's health was negatively associated with adherence. Results indicate that effective interventions should include a focus on promoting patients' autonomous regulation and religious/spiritual beliefs regarding ART adherence.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Monitoring / methods
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Male
  • Motivation
  • Patient Compliance / psychology
  • Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Religion*
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data*


  • Anti-HIV Agents