Enhanced glutamate, IP3 and cAMP activity in the cerebral cortex of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rats: effect of 5-HT, GABA and bone marrow cell supplementation

J Biomed Sci. 2011 Jan 15;18(1):5. doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-18-5.


Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which leads to dopamine depletion in the striatum and indirectly to cortical dysfunction. Increased glutamatergic transmission in the basal ganglia is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and glutamate receptor mediated excitotoxicity has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of the neuronal degeneration. In the present study, the effects of serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and bone marrow cells infused intranigrally to substantia nigra individually and in combination on unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rat model was analyzed. Scatchard analysis of total glutamate and NMDA receptor binding parameters showed a significant increase in Bmax (P < 0.001) in the cerebral cortex of 6-hydroxydopamine infused rat compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of NMDA2B, mGluR5, bax, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase were up regulated in cerebral cortex of 6-hydroxydopamine infused rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of GLAST, ά-Synuclien and Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein showed a significant (P < 0.001) down regulation in 6-OHDA infused rats compared to control. Behavioural studies were carried out to confirm the biochemical and molecular studies. Serotonin and GABA along with bone marrow cells in combination showed reversal of glutamate receptors and behaviour abnormality shown in the Parkinson's rat model. The therapeutic significance in Parkinson's disease is of prominence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation*
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism*
  • Cerebral Cortex / pathology
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism*
  • Inositol Phosphates / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Oxidopamine / adverse effects*
  • Oxidopamine / pharmacology
  • Parkinson Disease, Secondary / chemically induced
  • Parkinson Disease, Secondary / metabolism*
  • Parkinson Disease, Secondary / pathology
  • Parkinson Disease, Secondary / therapy
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Serotonin / metabolism*
  • Substantia Nigra / metabolism
  • Substantia Nigra / pathology
  • Transplantation, Homologous
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism*


  • Inositol Phosphates
  • inositol trispyrophosphate
  • Serotonin
  • Glutamic Acid
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Oxidopamine
  • Cyclic AMP