ADEM is a disease that is characterized by an inflammatory reaction and demyelination in the central nervous system, with a distinct tendency to a peripheral localization of pathological changes. ADEM happens to occur with a temporal, and probably also with a causative relationship to viral, exanthematous diseases, as well as to preventive vaccinations. However, there are still many unresolved problems with respect to the relationship of ADEM to multiple sclerosis (MS), especially in instances with a multiphasic course of the disease. Many question marks can also be raised in cases, in which the examinations were unable to determine the exact preceding or causative factor. A lot of studies on cytokines and chemokines in blood plasma and CSR from patients with ADEM have enabled investigators to get a better insight into some stages of immunopathological processes, leading to an evolvement of the disease, without a more important impact on the clinical diagnosis.
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