Emergent impacts of multiple predators on prey

Trends Ecol Evol. 1998 Sep 1;13(9):350-5. doi: 10.1016/s0169-5347(98)01437-2.


Although almost all prey live with many types of predator, most experimental studies of predation have examined the effects of only one predator at a time. Recent work has revealed new insights into the emergent impacts of multiple predators on prey and experimental studies have identified statistical methods for evaluating them. These studies suggest two main types of emergent effect-risk reduction caused by predator-predator interactions and risk enhancement caused by conflicting prey responses to multiple predators. Some theory and generalities are beginning to emerge concerning the conditions that tend to produce these two outcomes.