Aims: Gene therapy of a peripheral organ to protect the heart is clinically attractive. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) transactivates cardioprotective genes. We investigated if remote delivery of DNA encoding for HIF-1α is protective against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo.
Main methods: DNA encoding for human HIF-1α was delivered to quadriceps muscles of mice. One week later myocardial infarction was induced and four weeks later its size was measured. Echocardiography and in vivo pressure-volume analysis was performed. Coronary vascularization was evaluated through plastic casting. HL-1 cells, transfected with either HIF-1α or HMOX-1 or administered bilirubin or the carbon monoxide (CO) donor CORM-2, were subjected to lipopolysacharide (LPS)-induced cell death to compare the efficacy of treatments.
Key findings: After four weeks of reperfusion post infarction, animals pretreated with HIF-1α showed reduced infarct size and left ventricular remodeling (p<0.05, respectively). Fractional shortening was preserved in mice pretreated with HIF-1α (p<0.05). Invasive hemodynamic parameters indicated preserved left ventricular function after HIF-1α (p<0.05), which also induced coronary vascularization (p<0.05). HIF-1α downstream target heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1) was upregulated in skeletal muscle, while serum bilirubin was increased. Transfection of HL-1 cells with HIF-1α or HMOX-1 and administration of bilirubin or CORM-2 comparably salvaged cells from lipopolysacharide (LPS)-induced cell death (all p<0.05).
Significance: HIF-1α gene delivery to skeletal muscle preceding myocardial ischemia reduced infarct size and postischemic remodeling accompanied by an improved cardiac function and vascularization. Similar to HIF-1α, HMOX-1, bilirubin and CO were protective against LPS-induced injury. This observation may have clinical potential.
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