High-frequency oscillations (HFOs), termed ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-600 Hz), are recorded in the EEG of epileptic patients and in animal epilepsy models; HFOs are thought to reflect pathological activity and seizure onset zones. Here, we analyzed the temporal and spatial evolution of interictal spikes with and without HFOs in the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Depth electrode recordings from dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 region, subiculum and entorhinal cortex (EC), were obtained from rats between the 4th and 15th day after a status epilepticus (SE) induced by i.p. injection of pilocarpine. The first seizure occurred 6.1 ± 2.5 days after SE (n = 7 rats). Five of 7 animals exhibited interictal spikes that co-occurred with fast ripples accounting for 4.9 ± 4.6% of all analyzed interictal spikes (n = 12,886) while all rats showed interictal spikes co-occurring with ripples, accounting for 14.3 ± 3.4% of all events. Increased rates of interictal spikes without HFOs in the EC predicted upcoming seizures on the following day, while rates of interictal spikes with fast ripples in CA3 reflected periods of high seizure occurrence. Finally, interictal spikes co-occurring with ripples did not show any specific relation to seizure occurrence. Our findings identify different temporal and spatial developmental patterns for the rates of interictal spikes with or without HFOs in relation with seizure occurrence. These distinct categories of interictal spikes point at dynamic processes that should bring neuronal networks close to seizure generation.
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