Recombinant human factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the setting of hemorrhage associated with factor VIII or factor IX inhibitors in patients with congenital or acquired hemophilia. This indication represents only a small number of bleeding conditions. Since it became available, rFVIIa has been increasingly used in the management of off-label indications, ranging from emergent hemostasis in traumatic hemorrhage to prophylactic hemostasis in patients undergoing major surgery. Prominent off-label indications include the management of patients with coagulopathies, such as occurs in trauma patients experiencing massive and uncontrolled hemorrhage, and in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Other occasions for use occur in patients with intact coagulation systems, with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage being the most common in this group. Uncertainties regarding the efficacy and safety associated with use of rFVIIa in these off-label scenarios have led to evidence-based assessments of patient outcomes, including mortality, the rate of thromboembolic adverse events, and posttreatment functional status. We review the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of this important, but controversial, hemostatic agent in the off-label setting.