Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011 Jun;164(4):546-59. doi: 10.1007/s12010-010-9156-0. Epub 2011 Jan 15.


The present study investigates the effect of free radical formation due to mobile phone exposure and effect on fertility pattern in 70-day-old male Wistar rats (sham exposed and exposed). Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 35 days to mobile phone frequency. The specific absorption rate was estimated to be 0.9 W/kg. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.007) showed a decrease, while an increase in catalase (P < 0.005) was observed. Malondialdehyde (P < 0.003) showed an increase and histone kinase (P = 0.006) showed a significant decrease in the exposed group. Micronuclei also show a significant decrease (P < 0.002) in the exposed group. A significant change in sperm cell cycle of G(0)-G(1) (P = 0.042) and G(2)/M (P = 0.022) were recorded. Generation of free radicals was recorded to be significantly increased (P = 0.035). Our findings on antioxidant, malondialdehyde, histone kinase, micronuclei, and sperm cell cycle are clear indications of an infertility pattern, initiated due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is concluded that radiofrequency electromagnetic wave from commercially available cell phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Phone*
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Protamine Kinase / metabolism
  • Radiation*
  • Radio Waves / adverse effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reproduction
  • Spermatozoa / radiation effects


  • Malondialdehyde
  • Protamine Kinase