As alterations of the redox homeostasis lie at the root of many pathophysiological processes in human health, redox proteomics holds the promise to shed further light on fundamental biological processes. In this review, the mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production are reviewed, mainly addressing those chemical phenomena which have already been associated with pathological conditions (of the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, or simply related to aging and altered-cell cycle regulation). From Alzheimer's to Parkinson's and Hungtinton's disease, from ageing to cancer, oxidative stress (OS) appears to represent a common trait in so many relevant biological aspects of human health, that further investments in the field of redox proteomics ought to be mandatory. For the foreseeable future, redox proteomics will likely play a pivotal role in the quest for new therapeutical targets and their validation, in the process of determining OS-triggered cellular alteration upon drug treatments and thus in the very heart of the design and testing of new drugs and their metabolites against those pathologies relying on altered redox homeostasis.
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