Objectives: Adipocytes of peripancreatic and intrapancreatic adipose tissue secret adipocytokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. For resistin, a role as an early predictor of peripancreatic necrosis and clinical severity in acute pancreatitis has been reported. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether the adipocytokine visfatin is able to serve as an early marker predicting peripancreatic necrosis and clinical severity.
Methods: A total of 50 patients (20 females and 30 males) with acute pancreatitis were included in this noninterventional, prospective, and monocentric cohort study on diagnostic accuracy. Clinical severity was classified by the Ranson score and APACHE-II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) score. Pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis were quantified by the computed tomography-based Balthazar score, the Schroeder score, and the pancreatic necrosis score. Visfatin was measured at admission and daily for 10 days by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Visfatin values were significantly and positively correlated with clinical severity (APACHE-II score and Ranson score) and with clinical end points such as death and need for interventions. Admission visfatin levels were significantly elevated in patients with higher pancreatic and extrapancreatic necrosis scores. It was shown by receiver operator characteristics that admission visfatin concentration provides a positive predictive value of 93.3% in predicting the extent of peripancreatic necrosis (area under the curve (AUC): 0.89, P<0.001, sensitivity: 93.3%, specificity: 81.8%, likelihood ratio: 5.1, post-test probability: 93%) by using a cutoff value of 1.8 ng/ml.
Conclusions: Admission visfatin concentration serves as an early predictive marker of peripancreatic necrosis and clinical severity in acute pancreatitis. Visfatin may have potential for clinical use as a new and diagnostic serum marker.