Effects of Oral Ingestion of Sucralose on Gut Hormone Response and Appetite in Healthy Normal-Weight Subjects

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr;65(4):508-13. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.291. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Abstract

Background/objective: The sweet-taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) is expressed by enteroendocrine L-cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Application of sucralose (a non-calorific, non-metabolisable sweetener) to L-cells in vitro stimulates glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion, an effect that is inhibited with co-administration of a T1r2+T1r3 inhibitor. We conducted a randomised, single-blinded, crossover study in eight healthy subjects to investigate whether oral ingestion of sucralose could stimulate L-cell-derived GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) release in vivo.

Methods: Fasted subjects were studied on 4 study days in random order. Subjects consumed 50 ml of either water, sucralose (0.083% w/v), a non-sweet, glucose-polymer matched for sweetness with sucralose addition (50% w/v maltodextrin+0.083% sucralose) or a modified sham-feeding protocol (MSF=oral stimulation) of sucralose (0.083% w/v). Appetite ratings and plasma GLP-1, PYY, insulin and glucose were measured at regular time points for 120 min. At 120 min, energy intake at a buffet meal was measured.

Results: Sucralose ingestion did not increase plasma GLP-1 or PYY. MSF of sucralose did not elicit a cephalic phase response for insulin or GLP-1. Maltodextrin ingestion significantly increased insulin and glucose compared with water (P<0.001). Appetite ratings and energy intake were similar for all groups.

Conclusions: At this dose, oral ingestion of sucralose does not increase plasma GLP-1 or PYY concentrations and hence, does not reduce appetite in healthy subjects. Oral stimulation with sucralose had no effect on GLP-1, insulin or appetite.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / metabolism*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Peptide YY / blood
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Sucrose / analogs & derivatives*
  • Sucrose / pharmacology
  • Sweetening Agents / pharmacology*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones
  • Insulin
  • Sweetening Agents
  • Peptide YY
  • Sucrose
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • trichlorosucrose