Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a receptor that plays an essential role in angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and nervous system development. Previous studies have shown that peptides with an N-terminal Arg, especially peptides with the four-residue consensus sequence R/K/XXR/K, bind to NRP-1 cell surfaces. Peptides containing such consensus sequences promote binding and internalization into cells, while blocking the C-terminal Arg (or Lys) prevents the internalization. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to model the structural properties of the NRP-1 complex with a prototypic CendR peptide, RPAR. Our simulations show that RPAR binds NRP-1 through specific interactions of the RPAR C-terminus: three hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge anchor the ligand in the receptor pocket. The modeling results were used as the starting point for a systematic computational study of new RPAR analogues based on chemical modifications of their natural amino acids. Comparison of the structural properties of the new peptide-receptor complexes with the original organization suggests that some of the analogues can increase the binding affinity while reducing the natural sensitivity of RXXR to endogenous proteases.