Acute full-thickness skin wounds (FTSW) caused by extensive burns or high-energy trauma are not adequately addressed by current clinical treatments. This study hypothesized that biomimetic nanofiber scaffolds (NFSs) functionalized with rich attachment of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can promote wound healing in acute FTSW. Results in a rat model showed that both NFS and BM-MSCs contributed to the wound healing. Wounds in NFS group with a higher density of BM-MSCs achieved complete closure 8 days earlier than the control group. Implanted BM-MSCs were found to promote epithelial edge ingrowth and collagen synthesis. The colocation of BM-MSCs (tagged with quantum-dots) with the expression of keratin 10 and filaggrin indicated the participation of BM-MSCs in epidermal differentiation at early and intermediate stages under the local wounding environment. Overall, this study suggests a great potential of using NFS/BM-MSC composites for the treatment of acute FTSW.