CYP2C19 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms are differently distributed according to ethnicity in the Brazilian general population

BMC Med Genet. 2011 Jan 19:12:13. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-13.


Background: Recent studies have reported the clinical importance of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 polymorphisms in an individualized approach to clopidogrel treatment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequencies of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 polymorphisms and to identify the clopidogrel-predicted metabolic phenotypes according to ethnic groups in a sample of individuals representative of a highly admixtured population.

Methods: One hundred and eighty-three Amerindians and 1,029 subjects of the general population of 4 regions of the country were included. Genotypes for the ABCB1c.C3435T (rs1045642), CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285), CYP2C19*3 (rs4986893), CYP2C19*4 (rs28399504), CYP2C19*5 (rs56337013), and CYP2C19*17 (rs12248560) polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction followed by high resolution melting analysis. The CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4 and CYP2C19*5 variants were genotyped in a subsample of subjects (300 samples randomly selected).

Results: The CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*5 variant alleles were not detected and the CYP2C19*4 variant allele presented a frequency of 0.3%. The allelic frequencies for the ABCB1c.C3435T, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 polymorphisms were differently distributed according to ethnicity: Amerindian (51.4%, 10.4%, 15.8%); Caucasian descent (43.2%, 16.9%, 18.0%); Mulatto (35.9%, 16.5%, 21.3%); and African descent (32.8%, 20.2%, 26.3%) individuals, respectively. As a result, self-referred ethnicity was able to predict significantly different clopidogrel-predicted metabolic phenotypes prevalence even for a highly admixtured population.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate the existence of inter-ethnic differences in the ABCB1 and CYP2C19 variant allele frequencies in the Brazilian general population plus Amerindians. This information could help in stratifying individuals from this population regarding clopidogrel-predicted metabolic phenotypes and design more cost-effective programs towards individualization of clopidogrel therapy.

MeSH terms

  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 / genetics*
  • Adult
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics*
  • Brazil
  • Clopidogrel
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  • Ethnicity / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Humans
  • Indians, South American / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / metabolism*
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Ticlopidine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Ticlopidine / metabolism
  • Ticlopidine / therapeutic use
  • White People / statistics & numerical data


  • ABCB1 protein, human
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Clopidogrel
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • CYP2C19 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  • Ticlopidine