Objective: To review suspected causes of lithium-induced hyperparathyroidism, disease presentation, underlying pathology, and current recommendations and trends in medical and surgical treatment.
Methods: Relevant literature was reviewed.
Results: Lithium carbonate therapy has continued to be a mainstay of treatment for bipolar disease and schizoaffective disorder since its introduction into clinical use. Several metabolic consequences are associated with its long-term use, including hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism.
Conclusions: Until further data become available, the surgeon should remain vigilant for the presence of pathologically active glands that may manifest their function at different times during the disease course.