Lithium use and primary hyperparathyroidism

Endocr Pract. 2011 Mar-Apr:17 Suppl 1:31-5. doi: 10.4158/EP10273.RA.


Objective: To review suspected causes of lithium-induced hyperparathyroidism, disease presentation, underlying pathology, and current recommendations and trends in medical and surgical treatment.

Methods: Relevant literature was reviewed.

Results: Lithium carbonate therapy has continued to be a mainstay of treatment for bipolar disease and schizoaffective disorder since its introduction into clinical use. Several metabolic consequences are associated with its long-term use, including hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism.

Conclusions: Until further data become available, the surgeon should remain vigilant for the presence of pathologically active glands that may manifest their function at different times during the disease course.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy*
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology
  • Lithium Carbonate / therapeutic use*


  • Lithium Carbonate