Enolases: storage compounds in seeds? Evidence from a proteomic comparison of zygotic and somatic embryos of Cyclamen persicum Mill

Plant Mol Biol. 2011 Feb;75(3):305-19. doi: 10.1007/s11103-010-9729-x. Epub 2011 Jan 20.


Somatic embryogenesis is well established for the economic relevant ornamental crop Cyclamen and thus could supplement the elaborate propagation via seeds. However, the use of somatic embryogenesis for commercial large scale propagation is still limited due to physiological disorders and asynchronous development within emerged embryos. To overcome these problems, profound knowledge of the physiological processes in Cyclamen embryogenesis is essential. Thus, the proteomes of somatic and zygotic embryos were characterised in a comparative approach. Protein separation via two dimensional IEF-SDS PAGE led to a resolution of more than 1,000 protein spots/gel. Overall, 246 proteins were of differential abundance in the two tissues compared. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 300 most abundant protein spots resulted in the identification of 247 proteins, which represent 90 distinct protein species. Fifty-five percent of the 247 proteins belong to only three physiological categories: glycolysis, protein folding and stress response. The latter physiological process was especially predominant in the somatic embryos. Remarkably, the glycolytic enzyme enolase was the protein most frequently detected and thus is supposed to play an important role in Cyclamen embryogenesis. Data are presented that indicate involvement of "small enolases" as storage proteins in Cyclamen. A digital reference map was established via a novel software tool for the web-based presentation of proteome data linked to KEGG and ExPasy protein-databases and both were made publicly available online.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cyclamen / chemistry*
  • Cyclamen / embryology
  • Cyclamen / enzymology*
  • Cyclamen / genetics
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism*
  • Phylogeny
  • Proteomics
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Seeds / enzymology
  • Zygote / chemistry*
  • Zygote / enzymology*


  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase