Fluorescence quantum yields of a series of red and near-infrared dyes emitting at 600-1000 nm

Anal Chem. 2011 Feb 15;83(4):1232-42. doi: 10.1021/ac101329h. Epub 2011 Jan 20.


The determination of the fluorescence quantum yields (QY, Φ(f)) of a series of fluorescent dyes that span the absorption/excitation and emission ranges of 520-900 and 600-1000 nm is reported. The dyes encompass commercially available rhodamine 101 (Rh-101, Φ(f) = 0.913), cresyl violet (0.578), oxazine 170 (0.579), oxazine 1 (0.141), cryptocyanine (0.012), HITCI (0.283), IR-125 (0.132), IR-140 (0.167), and four noncommercial cyanine dyes with specific spectroscopic features, all of them in dilute ethanol solution. The QYs have been measured relative to the National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference material (SRM) 936a (quinine sulfate, QS) on a traceably characterized fluorometer, employing a chain of transfer standard dyes that include coumarin 102 (Φ(f) = 0.764), coumarin 153 (0.544), and DCM (0.435) as links between QS and Rh-101. The QY of Rh-101 has also been verified in direct measurements against QS using two approaches that rely only on instrument correction. In addition, the effects of temperature and the presence of oxygen on the fluorescence quantum yield of Rh-101 have been assessed.

MeSH terms

  • Color
  • Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry*
  • Infrared Rays*
  • Oxygen / chemistry
  • Reference Standards
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods*
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence / standards


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Oxygen