Sepsis-related morbidity and mortality are major problems in NICU. Preterm neonates display clinical characteristics that make them prone to infections. Due to the high frequency of severe neurodevelopmental sequelae in survivors, the best possible strategy to manage sepsis in NICU is to prevent them. Hygiene, cohorting, stewardship on use of H2-blockers, steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotic are mandatory, as well as proper management of central venous accesses and surgical devices. In addition, clinical research offers the opportunity of adopting pharmacological preventative strategies such as use of palivizumab to prevent RSV infection, use of fluconazole to prevent fungal sepsis, use of probiotics and lactoferrin to enhance the innate immunity, and use of pagibaximab to prevent staphylococcal sepsis.
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