The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on shear bond strength and microleakage between resin cements and yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics. Eighty disc specimens of Y-TZP ceramics (6 mm × 4 mm) were prepared. The specimens were divided into two groups according to surface treatment (control and Er:YAG laser-treated). The control and lased specimens were separated into two groups for shear bond strength test (n = 20), and microleakage evaluation (n = 10). Specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test by a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Specimens for microleakage evaluation were then sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 h, sectioned, and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons tests (α = 0.05) for shear bond strengths and a two related-samples tests (α = 0.05) for microleakage scores. Higher bond strength values were found in the laser-treated groups compared to the control groups. Microleakage scores among the groups showed that the laser-treated specimens had lower microleakage scores than those of control specimens in the adhesive-ceramic interface. Roughening surface of Y-TZP ceramic by Er:YAG laser increased the shear bond strengths of ceramic to dentin and reduced the microleakage scores.