Oxidative Stability of Cooked, Frozen, Reheated Beef Patties: Effect of Antioxidants

J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Mar 30;91(5):963-8. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4274. Epub 2011 Jan 19.


Background: The effect of selected antioxidants (grape seed extract (GS), oleoresin rosemary (OR), water-soluble oregano extract (WO), propyl gallate (PG), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)) on sensory, color and oxidative stability of cooked, frozen, reheated ground beef patties was evaluated. Beef lean and trim were ground; antioxidants and salt were added. Patties were cooked (71 °C), overwrapped in commercial polyvinyl chloride film, and stored frozen (-18 °C), then evaluated monthly for 6 months. Flavor, odor and color were determined using a descriptive panel. Instrumental color was determined by a spectrocolorimeter. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS).

Results: After 6 months of storage, PG and GS samples had lower rancid odor scores and TBARS than controls. Control samples and those containing BHT did not differ statistically in sensory grassy or rancid odor, indicating that they were the most oxidized. TBARS correlated with grassy, rancid, cardboard and beef odors during the 6-month storage period.

Conclusions: Based on TBARS, the order of effectiveness of the antioxidants was PG and GS > OR > BHA > WO and BHT > control. TBARS were well correlated with sensory evaluations of odor and flavor. Antioxidants also protected a* values during storage.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole / pharmacology
  • Butylated Hydroxytoluene / pharmacology
  • Cattle
  • Cold Temperature
  • Cooking
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Food Preservation / methods*
  • Freezing
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects*
  • Meat Products / analysis*
  • Odorants*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Propyl Gallate / pharmacology
  • Seeds
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • Butylated Hydroxytoluene
  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole
  • Propyl Gallate