Effect of a phytotherapeutic agent, Eviprostat®, on prostatic and urinary cytokines/chemokines in a rat model of nonbacterial prostatitis

Prostate. 2011 Mar 1;71(4):438-44. doi: 10.1002/pros.21299. Epub 2010 Oct 28.


Background: Chronic inflammation in the prostate has recently been recognized as an important component of the symptom progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to evaluate a range of cytokines/chemokines in prostate tissue and urine to identify markers of prostate inflammation in a prostatitis model and to investigate the effect of a phytotherapeutic agent, Eviprostat®, on these markers.

Methods: Ten-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP) was experimentally induced in groups 2-4 by castration followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol for 30 days. Control rats were fed a standard diet, while animals in the Eviprostat groups were fed a diet containing 0.05 or 0.1% Eviprostat for 30 days. The levels of cytokines/chemokines in prostate tissue on the 31st day and in urine collected the day before castration and the day before removal of the prostate were determined.

Results: Experimentally induced NBP increased the prostatic levels of the cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The levels of the chemokines CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), CXCL1/CINC-1, CXCL3/CINC-2, and CXCL5/LIX were elevated in both prostate and urine. Eviprostat significantly suppressed the increases in prostate IL-1β, TNF-α and CCL3/MIP-1α and prostatic and urinary CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL1/CINC-1.

Conclusions: Chemokines, including CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL1/CINC-1, were elevated in the prostate and urine of NBP rats, and Eviprostat potently suppressed the increases in CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL1/CINC-1. These chemokines are therefore candidate diagnostic biomarkers for nonbacterial chronic prostatic inflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chemokines / analysis*
  • Chemokines / urine
  • Cytokines / analysis*
  • Cytokines / urine
  • Drug Combinations
  • Ethamsylate / pharmacology
  • Ethamsylate / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Prostate / immunology*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy*
  • Prostatitis / drug therapy
  • Prostatitis / immunology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Drug Combinations
  • Plant Extracts
  • Ethamsylate
  • eviprostat