Background: Chronic inflammation in the prostate has recently been recognized as an important component of the symptom progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to evaluate a range of cytokines/chemokines in prostate tissue and urine to identify markers of prostate inflammation in a prostatitis model and to investigate the effect of a phytotherapeutic agent, Eviprostat®, on these markers.
Methods: Ten-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP) was experimentally induced in groups 2-4 by castration followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol for 30 days. Control rats were fed a standard diet, while animals in the Eviprostat groups were fed a diet containing 0.05 or 0.1% Eviprostat for 30 days. The levels of cytokines/chemokines in prostate tissue on the 31st day and in urine collected the day before castration and the day before removal of the prostate were determined.
Results: Experimentally induced NBP increased the prostatic levels of the cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The levels of the chemokines CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), CXCL1/CINC-1, CXCL3/CINC-2, and CXCL5/LIX were elevated in both prostate and urine. Eviprostat significantly suppressed the increases in prostate IL-1β, TNF-α and CCL3/MIP-1α and prostatic and urinary CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL1/CINC-1.
Conclusions: Chemokines, including CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL1/CINC-1, were elevated in the prostate and urine of NBP rats, and Eviprostat potently suppressed the increases in CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL1/CINC-1. These chemokines are therefore candidate diagnostic biomarkers for nonbacterial chronic prostatic inflammation.
Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.