Calbindin-D28K and calretinin are homologous calcium-binding proteins localized in many neurons of the central nervous systems. We have compared polyclonal antibodies against calbindin and calretinin and have shown by western blots using purified calbindin and calretinin from rat that (1) anti-calretinin does not recognize calbindin and (2) anti-calbindin presents some cross-reactivity with calretinin. In this report, we have compared by immunohistochemistry the localization of both calcium-binding proteins in the retina of monkey, pig, sheep, rat, cat, pigeon, and salamander. These results are compared with previous data for chick. There are many differences between species and not within species, but some aspects of the distribution are conserved. All species, except rat and monkey, have some cones which contain calbindin only. Most species also have some bipolar cells containing calbindin only. Calretinin is rarely seen in photoreceptors or bipolar cells. All species have horizontal cells which contain calretinin or calbindin or both. All species have amacrine cells and ganglion cells containing one or other protein. In the cat ganglion cell layer, the calretinin antisera define a new, asymmetric, type of cell.