Introduction: The use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain is growing and is now accepted as an effective treatment modality.
Areas covered: Although there are guidelines and reviews for chronic opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain patients, physicians may still have concerns and be reluctant to prescribe strong opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Common issues and concerns when prescribing opioid for chronic pain management are reviewed and discussed. The literature search was done using Medline with key words 'chronic non-cancer pain', 'chronic opioid therapy', 'effectiveness', 'opioid tolerance', 'opioid-induced hyperalgesia', 'adverse effect', 'opioid dependency', 'addiction', 'monitoring', 'opioid contract' and various combinations with these key words. Studies from 1990 - 2010 have been included. This article helps readers to update, clarify and understand the common concerns when using opioid for chronic non-cancer pain. Clinical effectiveness and adverse effects with chronic opioid therapy, opioid tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia, opioid dependency and addiction, monitoring during chronic opioid use, and opioid contact are discussed in detailed.
Expert opinion: Not much strongly positive data supports the long-term use of opioids for pain relief, and the evidence for an improvement in functional activity is inconclusive. With careful selection of patients, meticulous prescription and monitoring protocol, chronic non-cancer pain patients who are likely to benefit from potent opioids should not be prevented from obtaining this treatment.