Introduction: RAD21 is a component of the cohesin complex, which is essential for chromosome segregation and error-free DNA repair. We assessed its prognostic and predictive power in a cohort of in situ and invasive breast cancers, and its effect on chemosensitivity in vitro.
Methods: RAD21 immunohistochemistry was performed on 345 invasive and 60 pure in situ carcinomas. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed on a further 48 grade 3 invasive cancers. Chemosensitivity was assessed in breast cancer cell lines with an engineered spectrum of RAD21 expression.
Results: RAD21 expression correlated with early relapse in all patients (hazard ratio (HR) 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 2.86, P = 0.029). This was due to the effect of grade 3 tumors (but not grade 1 or 2) in which RAD21 expression correlated with early relapse in luminal (P = 0.040), basal (P = 0.018) and HER2 (P = 0.039) groups. In patients treated with chemotherapy, RAD21 expression was associated with shorter overall survival (P = 0.020). RAD21 mRNA expression correlated with DNA copy number, with amplification present in 32% (7/22) of luminal, 31% (4/13) of basal and 22% (2/9) of HER2 grade 3 cancers. Variations in RAD21 mRNA expression in the clinical samples were reflected in the gene expression data from 36 breast cancer cell lines. Knockdown of RAD21 in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line significantly enhanced sensitivity to cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil and etoposide. The findings for the former two drugs recapitulated the clinical findings.
Conclusions: RAD21 expression confers poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in high grade luminal, basal and HER2 breast cancers. RAD21 may be a novel therapeutic target.