Repeat revaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among adults aged 55-74 years living in Alaska: no evidence of hyporesponsiveness

Vaccine. 2011 Mar 9;29(12):2287-95. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.029. Epub 2011 Jan 19.


Background: Older adults are at highest risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and are recommended to receive vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Antibody concentrations decline following vaccination. We evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of revaccination and repeat revaccination.

Methods: Adults aged 55-74 years were vaccinated with a 1st to 4th dose of PPV23. Participants were eligible for revaccination if a minimum of 6 years had passed since their last dose of PPV23. Blood collected on the day of vaccination and 30 days later was analyzed by ELISA for IgG to five serotypes. Functional antibody activity was measured using an opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay. Reactions to vaccination were documented.

Results: Subjects were vaccinated with a 1st dose (n=123), 2nd dose (n=121), or 3rd or 4th dose (n=71) of PPV23. The post-vaccination IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were similar among first-time vaccinees and re-vaccinees for all serotypes with the exception of a lower GMC for serotype 1 in re-vaccinees. The post-vaccination OPK geometric mean titers (GMTs) were similar among first-time vaccinees and re-vaccinees with the exception of a higher GMT for serotype 6B in re-vaccinees. Compared to first-time vaccinees, re-vaccinees reported more joint pain (p=0.004), fatigue (p=0.019), headache (p=0.014), swelling (p=0.006), and moderate limitation in arm movement (p=0.025).

Conclusions: Repeat revaccination with PPV23, administered 6 or more years after the prior dose, was immunogenic and generally well tolerated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alaska
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Antibody Affinity
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Secondary*
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phagocytosis
  • Pneumococcal Infections / prevention & control*
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / immunology*
  • Prospective Studies


  • 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine
  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines