PM 2.5 collected in a residential area induced Th1-type inflammatory responses with oxidative stress in mice

Environ Res. 2011 Apr;111(3):348-55. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2010.11.001. Epub 2011 Jan 21.


Epidemiologists have tried to establish an association between human health and exposure to particulate matter (PM). In addition, many researchers have investigated the adverse effects of PM as a trigger of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is known that a number of environmental contaminants are attached to PM and the toxicity of PM may depend on the sources. We investigated the effects of PM collected in a residential area of Seoul on the immunotoxic responses including cytokine production in BAL fluid and in blood after a single intratracheal instillation in mice with the characterization of physico-chemical properties of PM 2.5 samples. As results, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-6), Th0-type cytokine (IL-2), and Th1-type cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-γ) were increased by a dose-dependent manner. Cell infiltration in the alveolar area and phagocytosis by macrophage was observed until day 28 after instillation. The expressions of oxidative stress-related genes (HSP 1a, HSP 8, and SOD) and tissue damage-related genes (MMP-15, -19, and Slpi) were time-dependently increased. PM 2.5 also induced an increase of T cell distribution in lymphocyte and decreased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Based on the results, we suggest that PM 2.5 collected in a residential area of Seoul may induce Th1 type-inflammatory responses with oxidative stress and trigger adverse effects in human health.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / chemistry
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Cycle / immunology
  • Cities
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Histocytochemistry
  • Immunoglobulin E / blood
  • Immunophenotyping / methods
  • Korea
  • Lung Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Lung Diseases / immunology
  • Lung Diseases / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics
  • Oxidative Stress / immunology
  • Particle Size
  • Particulate Matter / analysis
  • Particulate Matter / toxicity*
  • Th1 Cells / drug effects*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Particulate Matter
  • Immunoglobulin E