Background: Uncontrolled hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis), and glycogenolysis, is a major contributor to the fasting hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes. Here we report the discovery of a C-terminal nonapeptide (FIAWLVKGRamide) derived from GLP-1 that suppresses glucose production and oxidative stress in isolated mouse hepatocytes. The nonapeptide, GLP-1(28-36)amide, was reported earlier to be a major product derived from the cleavage of GLP-1 by the endopeptidase NEP 24.11.
Methods and results: Hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of normal and diet-induced obese mice. We find that the GLP-1(28-36)amide nonapeptide rapidly enters isolated mouse hepatocytes by GLP-1 receptor-independent mechanisms, and targets to mitochondria where it inhibits gluconeogenesis and oxidative stress.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that GLP-1 not only acts on a cell surface G-protein coupled receptor activating kinase-regulated signaling pathways, but a small C-terminal peptide derived from GLP-1 also enters cells, targets mitochondria, and exerts insulin-like actions by modulating oxidative phosphorylation. GLP-1(28-36)amide, or a peptide mimetic derived there from, might prove to be a useful treatment for fasting hyperglycemia and metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes.
2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.