Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011 Apr;43(4):478-81. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2011.01.007. Epub 2011 Jan 21.


Metabologens initiate, promote and maintain morphogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) which belong to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, represent a major class of metabologens that regulate ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm derived tissue formation. In order to temporally and spatially control BMP initiated signaling cascades, a tight regulatory network is needed to maintain concinnity. There are a number of ways how BMP signaling can be inhibited or more likely be modified, among which the direct extracellular inhibition through cysteine-knot containing proteins from the DAN-, the twisted gastrulation-, chordin- and noggin-family is a classic. This review focuses on noggin and its impact on the vast array of BMP driven actions and thereby invites the ever-growing BMP research field to (re-) investigate noggin's function in detail.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins* / chemistry
  • Carrier Proteins* / metabolism
  • Ectoderm / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Mesoderm / metabolism


  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • noggin protein