A contact lens with embedded sensor for monitoring tear glucose level

Biosens Bioelectron. 2011 Mar 15;26(7):3290-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2010.12.042. Epub 2010 Dec 31.


We report the design, construction, and testing of a contact lens with an integrated amperometric glucose sensor, proposing the possibility of in situ human health monitoring simply by wearing a contact lens. The glucose sensor was constructed by creating microstructures on a polymer substrate, which was subsequently shaped into a contact lens. Titania sol-gel film was applied to immobilize glucose oxidase, and Nafion® was used to decrease several potential interferences (ascorbic acid, lactate, and urea) present in the tear film. The sensor exhibits a fast response (20s), a high sensitivity (240 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) and a good reproducibility after testing a number of sensors. It shows good linearity for the typical range of glucose concentrations in the tear film (0.1-0.6 mM), and acceptable accuracy in the presence of interfering agents. The sensor can attain a minimum detection of less than 0.01 mM glucose.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques / instrumentation*
  • Contact Lenses*
  • Enzymes, Immobilized / metabolism
  • Equipment Design
  • Glucose / analysis*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glucose Oxidase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Tears / chemistry*
  • Tears / metabolism


  • Enzymes, Immobilized
  • Glucose Oxidase
  • Glucose