Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of N-butyl cyanoacrylate for bronchial and nonbronchial systemic artery embolization in the management of major hemoptysis.
Materials and methods: From March 2004 through March 2006, 108 patients with major hemoptysis underwent embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate. The common conditions causing hemoptysis were bronchiectasis (n = 34), sequelae of tuberculosis (n = 31), active tuberculosis (n = 18), lung cancer (n = 8), and aspergilloma (n = 6). A retrospective analysis of postprocedure outcomes, including immediate success, recurrence of hemoptysis, cause of recurrence, and complications, was performed.
Results: Immediate success was achieved in 105 patients (97.2%). During the follow-up period (range, 5 days-63 months; median, 28.5 months), recurrent hemoptysis was found in 21 of the 105 patients (20%). Repeat angiograms (n = 14) revealed incomplete embolization during the initial procedure in seven patients with early recurrence (< 3 months) and revascularization of nonbronchial systemic collateral arteries in seven patients with late recurrence (> 3 months). No recanalization of embolized arteries was found on repeat angiograms or at follow-up CT. The cumulative nonrecurrence rates were 91.4% 1 month, 83.4% 1 year, 76.7% 3 years, and 56.8% 5 years after the initial procedure. The procedure-related complications included transient chest pain (n = 21) and denudation of the bronchial mucosa (n = 3), which was clinically silent but found at bronchoscopy.
Conclusion: N-butyl cyanoacrylate is a safe and effective agent for embolization in patients with major hemoptysis.