Aims: Although pre-revascularization ischaemia testing is recommended, the interaction between the extent of ischaemia and myocardial scar with performance of revascularization on patient survival is unclear.
Methods and results: We identified 13 969 patients who underwent adenosine or exercise stress SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). The percent myocardium ischaemic (%I) and fixed (%F) were calculated using 5 point/20-segment MPS scoring. Patients lost to follow-up (2.8%) were excluded leaving 13 555 patients [35% with history (Hx) of known coronary artery disease (CAD), 65% exercise stress, 61% male, age 66 ± 12]. Follow-up was performed at 12-18 months for early revascularization and at >7 years for all-cause death (ACD) (mean follow-up 8.7 ± 3.3 years). All-cause death was modelled using Cox proportional hazards modelling adjusting for logistic-based propensity scores, MPS, revascularization, and baseline characteristics. During FU, 3893 ACD (29%, 3.3%/year) and 1226 early revascularizations (9.0%) occurred. After risk-adjustment, a three-way interaction was present between %I, early revascularization, and HxCAD, such that %I identified a survival benefit with early revascularization in patients without prior myocardial infarction (MI), whereas no such benefit was present in patients with prior MI (overall model χ(2)= 3932, P < 0.001; interaction P < 0.021). Further modelling revealed that after excluding patients with scar >10% total myocardium, %I identified a survival benefit in all patients.
Conclusion: In this large observational series with long-term follow-up, patients with significant ischaemia and without extensive scar were likely to realize a survival benefit from early revascularization. In contrast, the survival of patients with minimal ischaemia was superior with medical therapy without early revascularization.