Apolipoprotein B-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-1 (APOBEC1) is a cytidine deaminase initially identified by its activity in converting a specific cytidine (C) to uridine (U) in apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA transcripts in the small intestine. Editing results in the translation of a truncated apoB isoform with distinct functions in lipid transport. To address the possibility that APOBEC1 edits additional mRNAs, we developed a transcriptome-wide comparative RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) screen. We identified and validated 32 previously undescribed mRNA targets of APOBEC1 editing, all of which are located in AU-rich segments of transcript 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). Further analysis established several characteristic sequence features of editing targets, which were predictive for the identification of additional APOBEC1 substrates. The transcriptomics approach to RNA editing presented here dramatically expands the list of APOBEC1 mRNA editing targets and reveals a novel cellular mechanism for the modification of transcript 3' UTRs.