The estimated frequency of parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) infections following haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is 2-7%, whereas reported mortality ranges from 18 to 33%. We report a retrospective outcome analysis following an outbreak of PIV-3 infection in our transplant unit. A total of 16 HSCT patients developed PIV-3 infection. All patients had upper respiratory tract infection, whereas lower respiratory tract infection occurred in 8 patients. Overall, 13 patients were treated with aerosolised Ribavirin (2 g t.d.s. for 5 days) and i.v. Ig (0.5 g/kg) as per standard protocol. One patient refused treatment, whereas two patients with full immune reconstitution were not treated. Overall mortality was 62.5%. Sepsis with multi-organ failure and the presence of pulmonary co-pathogens were both significantly associated with PIV-3-related mortality. Our series confirms that high mortality is associated with PIV-3 infection in HSCT recipients. In patients who develop PIV-3 infection, despite strict enforcement of infection control policies, the best strategy might be careful risk assessment, with effective broad-spectrum anti-microbials in those who are at risk of secondary infection.