The genome damage (the frequencies of cells with micronuclei (MN), chromosome aberrations, the level of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB DNA), the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 28 immunological parameters have been studied on the blood lymphocytes of Chernobyl accident liquidators. The purpose of this article was the investigation of cytogenetic, molecular changes of blood lymphocytes of irradiated individuals 24 years after accident, examination it there are correlation between genome damage and immunological parameters. It was shown that in lymphocytes of liquidators the frequencies of cells with MN and with all type of chromosome aberrations didn't differ from the lymphocytes of nonirradiated individuals, but the frequency of chromosome aberration type was increased, the level of DSB DNA was increased too. The concentration of ROS is decreased. The percent of cytotoxic CD8(+)-T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (CD16(+)-lymphocytes), CD3+ CD16+ CD56+ (NK-T-cells), that posses antivirus and antitumor activity--HLA-DR+, regulatory T-lymphocytes (CD4+ CD25+high) in liquidators significantly increases. The level of serum immunoglobulin (Ig A) significantly increases too. The index of immune regulation, meaning of phagocyte neutrophil (FAN) and macrophage activity decreases. In liquidators there are significant correlation between the frequencies of cells with MN and the content of regulatory T-lymphocytes (p < 0.05), between the concentrations of ROS and activated T-lymphocytes. More connection is on the tendency level (p < 0.10): the frequency of chromosome aberrations, the DSB DNA level with natural killer cells and regulatory T-lymphocytes; the frequency of cells with MN and DSB DNA and FAM. We can suppose that genomic instability induced by the liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences 24 years ago manifests now as increased genome damage and oxidative status decrease that can result in imbalance of cells and humoral immune status, disturbancies of health.