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. 2011 Jan 24;12:56.
doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-56.

Pyrosequencing the Transcriptome of the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes Vaporariorum Reveals Multiple Transcripts Encoding Insecticide Targets and Detoxifying Enzymes

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Pyrosequencing the Transcriptome of the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes Vaporariorum Reveals Multiple Transcripts Encoding Insecticide Targets and Detoxifying Enzymes

Nikos Karatolos et al. BMC Genomics. .
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Abstract

Background: The whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum is an economically important crop pest in temperate regions that has developed resistance to most classes of insecticides. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised and, to date, progress has been hampered by a lack of nucleotide sequence data for this species. Here, we use pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a substantial and annotated EST dataset. This 'unigene set' will form a critical reference point for quantitation of over-expressed messages via digital transcriptomics.

Results: Pyrosequencing produced around a million sequencing reads that assembled into 54,748 contigs, with an average length of 965 bp, representing a dramatic expansion of existing cDNA sequences available for T. vaporariorum (only 43 entries in GenBank at the time of this publication). BLAST searching of non-redundant databases returned 20,333 significant matches and those gene families potentially encoding gene products involved in insecticide resistance were manually curated and annotated. These include, enzymes potentially involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and those encoding the targets of the major chemical classes of insecticides. A total of 57 P450s, 17 GSTs and 27 CCEs were identified along with 30 contigs encoding the target proteins of six different insecticide classes.

Conclusion: Here, we have developed new transcriptomic resources for T. vaporariorum. These include a substantial and annotated EST dataset that will serve the community studying this important crop pest and will elucidate further the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Scatter plot of number of reads representing a contig versus the contig length. Summary of correlation statistics is shown.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Species distribution of the top BLAST hit in the nr database for each contig of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (A) and general Enzyme Classification (EC) terms for the contigs of T. vaporariorum (B).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Gene ontology (GO) assignments for the Trialeurodes vaporariorum transcriptome. A. Molecular function GO terms, B. Biological process GO terms, C. Cellular component GO terms. The data presented represent the level 2 analysis, illustrating general functional categories.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome P450s from Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Tv) and other insect species. Bootstrap values next to the nodes represent the percentage of 1000 replicate trees that preserved the corresponding clade. Positions containing alignment gaps and missing data were eliminated with pairwise deletion. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Ap), Bemisia tabaci (Bt), Myzus persicae (Mp), Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), Anopheles gambiae (Ag), Tribolium castaneum (Tc) and Apis mellifera (Am) sequences were taken from http://drnelson.uthsc.edu/aphid.htm[16].
Figure 5
Figure 5
Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis of carboxyl/cholinesterases from Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Tv) and other insect species (accession numbers are given). Bootstrap values next to the nodes represent the percentage of 1000 replicate trees that preserved the corresponding clade. Positions containing alignment gaps and missing data were eliminated only with pairwise deletion. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Ap), Bemisia tabaci (Bt), Nasonia vitripennis (Nv), Spodoptera littoralis (Sl), Tribolium castaneum (Tc). Acyrthosiphon pisum sequences were taken from http://www.aphidbase.com/aphidbase.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis of glutathione-S-transferases from Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Tv) and other insect species (accession numbers are given). Bootstrap values next to the nodes represent the percentage of 1000 replicate trees that preserved the corresponding clade. Positions containing alignment gaps and missing data were eliminated only with pairwise deletion. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Ap), Drosophila melanogaster (Dm). Acyrthosiphon pisum sequences were taken from http://www.aphidbase.com/aphidbase.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) from Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Tv) and other insect species (accession numbers are given). Bootstrap values next to the nodes represent the percentage of 1000 replicate trees that preserved the corresponding clade. Positions containing alignment gaps and missing data were eliminated only with pairwise deletion. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Acyp), Myzus persicae (Mp), Bemisia tabaci (Bt), Nilaparvata lugens (Nl) and Aphis gossypii (Ag).

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