APS--controversies in diagnosis and management, critical overview of current guidelines

Thromb Res. 2011 Feb;127 Suppl 3:S51-2. doi: 10.1016/S0049-3848(11)70014-7.


Because the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome is based on laboratory data, performance and interpretation of such tests is essential. Positivity in a single test among Lupus Anticoagulant (LA), anti cardiolipin (aCL) and anti β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies calls APS diagnosis into question. Conversely, triple positivity is strongly associated to thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. A new era in studying APS should take into account different antiphospholipid antibodies profiles. Clinical studies on groups of patients that are homogeneous in terms of laboratory tests will provide information on the real risk of patients and on the real effect of therapeutic interventions.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid* / immunology
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / immunology
  • Humans
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic


  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • Anticoagulants