Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this area. While self-efficacy may influence performance, the true relationship between self-efficacy and performance in this setting has not been delineated. We developed an instrument to measure pediatric residents' self-efficacy in CRM skills and assessed its content validity, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. After administering the instrument to 125 pediatric residents, critical care fellows and faculty, we performed an exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory factor analysis as well as a known group comparison. The analyses specified four factors that we defined as: situation awareness, team management, environment management, and decision making. Pediatric residents reported lower self-efficacy than fellows and faculty in each factor. We also examined the correlation between self-efficacy and performance scores for a subset of 30 residents who led video recorded simulated resuscitations and had their performances rated by three observers. We found a significant, positive correlation between residents' self-efficacy in situation awareness and environment management and their overall performance of CRM skills. Our findings suggest that in a specific context, self-efficacy as a form of self-assessment may be informative with regards to performance.