The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern and extent of caudate nucleus and putamen atrophy in HIV-infected men with well-controlled immune status and viral replication. 155 men underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging; 84 were HIV-infected and 71 were uninfected controls. MRI data were processed using the Fully Deformable Segmentation routine, producing volumes for the right and left caudate nucleus and putamen, and 3-D maps of spatial patterns of thickness. There was significant atrophy in the HIV-infected men in both the caudate and putamen, principally in the anterior regions. The volume of the basal ganglia was inversely associated with the time since first seropositivity, suggesting that either there is a chronic, subclinical process that continues in spite of therapy, or that the extent of the initial insult caused the extent of atrophy.