Hesperedin promotes MyoD-induced myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo

Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Jun;163(3):598-608. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01243.x.


Background and purpose: The bioflavonoid, hesperedin, promotes osteoblast differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells, indicating an anabolic effect of hesperedin on bone metabolism. Murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells undergo myogenic differentiation as well as osteogenic differentiation. We therefore explored whether hesperedin modulates muscle cell differentiation.

Experimental approach: Myoblast C2C12 cells were differentiated into muscle cells in the presence or absence of hesperedin. The effects of hesperedin on myogenic differentiation were determined by analysing specific muscle markers in vitro using reporter gene assays, immunoblotting, RT-PCR and DNA pull-down assays. In vivo, the effects of hesperedin were assessed using the freeze injury-induced muscle regeneration model in mice and daily injections of hesperedin for 6 days.

Key results: Hesperedin promoted myogenic differentiation, in a dose-dependent manner, by increasing myogenin gene expression. MyoD-induced myogenin gene transcription was enhanced by hesperedin, as this bioflavonoid augmented the nuclear localization and myogenin promoter-binding of MyoD. In addition, hesperedin increased myogenin and muscle creatine kinase gene expression during myogenic differentiation from C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells in a MyoD-dependent manner and accelerated in vivo muscle regeneration induced by muscle injury.

Conclusions and implications: Our results demonstrate that hesperedin promoted myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo through activation of MyoD-mediated myogenin expression, suggesting a beneficial role in promoting muscle regeneration, following injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cell Transdifferentiation
  • Creatine Kinase, MM Form / biosynthesis
  • DNA / metabolism
  • Gene Expression
  • Hesperidin / pharmacology*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Muscle Cells / cytology
  • Muscle Cells / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects
  • Muscle, Skeletal / injuries
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • MyoD Protein / metabolism
  • Myoblasts / cytology
  • Myoblasts / drug effects*
  • Myoblasts / metabolism
  • Myogenin / biosynthesis
  • Myogenin / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Binding
  • Regeneration / drug effects


  • MyoD Protein
  • Myogenin
  • DNA
  • Hesperidin
  • Creatine Kinase, MM Form