Immunomodulatory drugs and their application to the management of canine immune-mediated disease

J Small Anim Pract. 2011 Feb;52(2):70-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01024.x.


This review summarises the current understanding of immune response and T cell subsets in the context of development of autoimmunity in the dog. Mode of action and rational usage in immune-mediated disease in the dog are discussed for the following drugs: glucocorticoids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, ciclosporin, tacrolimus, human intravenous immunoglobulin, vincristine, danazol, leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil and liposome-encapsulated clodronate. Disease mechanisms are discussed and published evidence for drug efficacy is scrutinised for five important immune-mediated diseases: immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, myasthenia gravis, glomerulonephritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Future strategies for more refined manipulation of adverse immune responses are presented.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmunity
  • Dog Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Dog Diseases / immunology*
  • Dogs
  • Immune System Diseases / drug therapy
  • Immune System Diseases / immunology
  • Immune System Diseases / veterinary*
  • Immunomodulation*
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*


  • Immunosuppressive Agents