Purpose: To analyze the current approaches to the surgical management of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).
Methods: Thirteen relevant queries were used in four search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, and the Cochrane Review) with a resultant 5,856 articles. Eighteen peer-reviewed treatment outcome studies met the inclusion criteria with minimum 1-year follow-up of the surgical treatment of skeletal pathoanatomy and associated chondrolabral pathology in skeletally mature patients with FAI.
Results: There were 6 open surgical dislocation, 4 mini-open, and 8 arthroscopic studies, all with Levels of Evidence III or IV. The only prospective studies were in the arthroscopic category. Outcome data were extracted and analyzed with respect to surgical efficacy, failure rates, and complications.
Conclusions: The open dislocation, mini-open, and arthroscopic methods for treating symptomatic FAI are effective in improving pain and function in short-term to midterm studies and are relatively safe procedures. The historical gold standard of open dislocation surgery had a comparatively high major complication rate primarily because of trochanteric osteotomy-related issues. The mini-open method showed comparable efficacy but a significant incidence of iatrogenic injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in some studies. The arthroscopic method had surgical outcomes equal to or better than the other methods with a lower rate of major complications when performed by experienced surgeons.
Copyright Â© 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.